I agree with previous recommendations.... Look for anything that's listed as Arca-Swiss quick release compatible. That's by far the most universal type of quick release system and is used by many dozens of manufacturers (not just Arca-Swiss). And, it works the way you want it to.
In fact, Arca-compatible QR is pretty much standard equipment on gimbal heads, which require that sliding feature to balance just as you describe, which allows big, heavy lenses to be used swiftly and smoothly with a light touch. Examples of gimbals here: http://www.carolinawildphoto.com/gimbal_list.htm
(Manfrotto does make an Arca-compatible system, but they also make several that are not... their own, proprietary systems that don't slide in the manner you want. Same with a few other manufacturers. I'm not sure what Manfrotto's own gimbal uses.... it's unique to that head alone, does allow sliding the gear fore and aft, but I don't know if it's Arca-compatible.)
You mention the Tamron 150-600mm... if it's the first version, you'll need to purchase a "lens plate". Those are available in different lengths from various manufacturers.
Look for an "anti-twist" feature in any lens plate you buy. That might be second screw or a tab or shape and is important to keep the lens plate from accidentally loosening. Beware of "universal" plates that just use a rubber insert to prevent loosening. Those typically don't work well with larger, heavier gear.
Also, some of those lens plates have "safety stops", to prevent them accidentally being slid too far forward or back. Usually those are just some stainless steel hex head screws that limit the sliding movement, preventing accidents. Those safety stops are removable, too.
I think the second version Tamron 150-600mm "G2" tripod mounting ring foot has an Arca-compatible dovetail built in.
With that version of the lens, all you would need is an Arca-compatible head of any type (ballhead, pan/tilt, gimbal or hybrids).
There also are Arca-compatible "adapters" that can be screwed onto a standard tripod head to convert it to work with the lens (and camera) plates.
B&H Photo lists 318 various types of tripod heads that have Arca-compatible quick release platforms: https://www.bhphotovideo.com/c/products/Tripod-Heads/ci/140/N/4075788769?searchWithin=arca
And they list 58 different lens plates, collars, etc. that are Arca-compatible: https://www.bhphotovideo.com/c/products/lens-plates-tripod-collars/ci/38007?filters=fct_lens-plate-type_6421%3Alens-plates&searchWithin=arca
You may also want to fit an Arca plate to your camera, so that it can use the same quick release system when you're shooting with shorter lenses that don't have a tripod collar. When it comes to the cameras, I recommend the fitted ones, custom made for specific camera models (to prevent accidental loosening). B&H lists 858 of those! (though some are "universal" that I'd avoid): https://www.bhphotovideo.com/c/products/camera-plates-l-brackets/ci/38006?filters=fct_quick-release-system_7375%3Aarca