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Canon vs Nikon: Which is better?
One camera setting that ruins your pictures
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Photo Analysis
Pleas help me understand
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Oct 16, 2013 23:11:06   #
PatrickTheCop
 
Is this Campbell's Covered Bridge in Landrum, SC?
 
Oct 17, 2013 00:20:25   #
country
 
PatrickTheCop wrote:
Is this Campbell's Covered Bridge in Landrum, SC?


yes it is...
Oct 17, 2013 01:34:21   #
JohninRockville
 
FWIW I tend to think of the old film speeds when trying to find a suitable iso. The 100 ASA was recommended for bright sunny days, 400 was suggested for cloudy/overcast days, sports photos were usually taken with high speed B&W film - Tri-X can't remember the speed??? Those are just basics - generally ISO settings over 1000 are for low light or action shots where you need fast shutter speed to freeze the action.
Oct 17, 2013 09:28:37   #
PatrickTheCop
 
country wrote:
yes it is...


I thought so. I have an engagement shoot there soon. :) Lovely spot.
Oct 18, 2013 10:42:24   #
dachs
 
country wrote:
so a lower iso tends to over expose?


nope, not if speed AND aperture are correct for it.

if you try manual, go manual everything
set ISO to (say) 200
set aperture to get the depth of field you like, perhaps f16
set speed to get a nice broad histogram (good exposure), which in sunlight would be 1/200 - 1/250th second
check the speed is equal to the lens in use, in this case OK for a 180mm lens but not any longer.
shoot

ISO 100, speed 1/100, F16 same exposure & OK for 90mm lens
ISO 400, speed 1/500, F16 same, OK for 250 - 400mm lens
ISO 400, speed 1/1000, F8, same, OK for 600mm lens

assuming hand held camera of course. On a tripod you can use slower speeds

see?
Oct 18, 2013 10:57:05   #
Nightski
 
country wrote:
took these two photos, but changed settings... one is ok, the other not so.. im trying to learn to use manual more, although I did leave iso on auto.. the one that is not so sharp and has noise( I think), is that because the iso is much higher ?.. is it better to have iso as low as possible ?.. the only change I made was shutter speed, which changed iso.. any advice will be appreciated as I am still a work in progress... thanks...


Country, keep your iso at 100 as a default, and only go higher if absolutely necessary because of low light conditions. Even at low light (sunrise or sunset) you should be at 100, because nothing is moving here except the stream. You will get a much better quality photo.

Go back and shoot this at sunrise or sunset. The light at the time of day you shot this is awful. You'll never get that "money" pic when the sun is so harsh.

Use a tripod in case your shutter speed has to be slower in lower light.

Stay in full manual. Try different f-stops. Start at 11 and move your way up, adjusting your shutter speed at each one.

Use manual focus at the higher f-stops. Look at your foreground while you are focusing get your foreground in focus, and then move that manual focus to see how far you can push the foreground to get more of the further away stuff in focus, without losing focus on the foreground. Play with it. Experiment.
It's free. Have fun.

I will post a bridge shot where I did this and pm you with the URL, so you can see. I played in manual, and it's amazing what you can come up with.

One more thing. Get lower on that creek if you can. You have a nice leading line there just waiting to be taken advantage of.
 
Oct 18, 2013 11:26:02   #
jenny (a regular here)
 
Country -f-stops do not come in "higher" or "lower".They
are smaller or larger,respectively.
Oct 18, 2013 11:32:15   #
Nightski
 
jenny wrote:
Country -f-stops do not come in "higher" or "lower".They
are smaller or larger,respectively.


Excuse me, I should have f-stops with a higher number. Here is a bridge I shot at F22. Thank you, Jenny, for correcting me. :D

http://www.uglyhedgehog.com/t-156259-1.html
Oct 18, 2013 12:06:56   #
jenny (a regular here)
 
xcuse me too,we need to explain f stops are actually fractions. I'm in a bit of a rush today trying to win playtime on the weekend.
f/2 is actually 1/2, f/22 is really 1/22. Would you rather have half the light available...or just a little bit?
On a bright day,and with landscape,a small aperture is necessary in order to have good depth of field.
Happy shooting and have a nice weekend.
Oct 18, 2013 12:52:17   #
Nightski
 
jenny wrote:
xcuse me too,we need to explain f stops are actually fractions. I'm in a bit of a rush today trying to win playtime on the weekend.
f/2 is actually 1/2, f/22 is really 1/22. Would you rather have half the light available...or just a little bit?
On a bright day,and with landscape,a small aperture is necessary in order to have good depth of field.
Happy shooting and have a nice weekend.


I have never heard anyone explain f-stops this way. Thank you, Jenny! What a clear, concise way of putting it. It's very helpful :thumbup:
Oct 18, 2013 16:44:15   #
lighthouse
 
I am sorry nightski. I have to disagree.
Its not helpful at all. It looks more like splitting hairs for point scoring and resulted in a possible misleading understanding.
Jenny says "f/2 is actually 1/2, f/22 is really 1/22. Would you rather have half the light available...or just a little bit?"
Saying it like this implies to novices that F/2 is 1/2 the light and F/22 is 1/22 the light.
This is not the case at all and if jenny thinks it is, then she needs to study a little more.
 
Oct 18, 2013 16:50:41   #
Nightski
 
lighthouse wrote:
I am sorry nightski. I have to disagree.
Its not helpful at all. It looks more like splitting hairs for point scoring and resulted in a possible misleading understanding.
Jenny says "f/2 is actually 1/2, f/22 is really 1/22. Would you rather have half the light available...or just a little bit?"
Saying it like this implies to novices that F/2 is 1/2 the light and F/22 is 1/22 the light.
This is not the case at all and if jenny thinks it is, then she needs to study a little more.
I am sorry nightski. I have to disagree. br Its no... (show quote)


How much light is f/2 then? That is exactly how I took it. But when you think about it, f/2 is almost the widest you can go right? F/1.4 being the widest? So it woudn't make sense that f/2 is half the light. Shoot! That sounded so simple to me.
Oct 18, 2013 17:10:18   #
lighthouse
 
Yes, F/2 is half the light of F/1.4. But that is only a coincidental thing in this case.
It is because each F/stop is half the light of the one above it and F/2 is the next full stop after F/1.4
From F/1.4 and F/2 the full f/stop numbers alternately double ie next F/stop is 2 x 1.4 = F/2.8, next one after that is 2 x 2 =4.
So listing them.
Each of these F/stops lets in 1/2 a much light as the one above, and twice as much as the one below.
1
1.4
2
2.8
4
5.6
8
11
16
22
32
45
64
90
(you will notice a little bit of rounding in the whole numbers)
So, lets assume that we have our ISO and shutter speed that we want to use for a shot. We want it at ISO 100 to reduce noise. We want the shutter speed to be 1/100th of a second for whatever reason.
The camera is currently set on F/4 and there is way too much light.
I turn the dial to F/22 and the image darkens to the correct exposure.
What have we done? How much have we reduced the light?
F/4 to F/5.6 = 1/2, F/5.6 to F/8 = 1/2, F/8 to F/11 = 1/2, F/11 to F/16 = 1/2 and F/16 to F/22 = 1/2.
So all up we have reduced the light by 5 F/stops.
Which is 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/32
By changing from F/4 to F/22 we have reduced the light registering on the sensor to 1/32 of what it was.





Nightski wrote:
How much light is f/2 then? That is exactly how I took it. But when you think about it, f/2 is almost the widest you can go right? F/1.4 being the widest? So it woudn't make sense that f/2 is half the light. Shoot! That sounded so simple to me.
Oct 18, 2013 17:22:51   #
mdorn
 
Nightski wrote:
How much light is f/2 then? That is exactly how I took it. But when you think about it, f/2 is almost the widest you can go right? F/1.4 being the widest? So it woudn't make sense that f/2 is half the light. Shoot! That sounded so simple to me.


How much light is f/2? Exactly this much---see my fingers? :-)

Actually, f-stop is the ratio of lens focal length divided by the effective lens aperture or mathematically:

f/stop = focal length / aperture diameter

But who cares about the math, right? Each full stop towards a larger number will give you exactly 50% the light exposure of the previous step. Because the aperture of your lens is round, the numbers are calculated like this:

1.4, 2.0, 2.8, 4.0, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22.

So if you want half the amount of light from f/2.0 then you would go to f/2.8, all other things being equal.

Think of aperture like the pupil in your eye. When it gets dark your pupil widens to let more light in. The aperture of a lens works just like the pupil in your eye more or less.

Most photographers have these numbers memorized. Yes, there are incremental numbers in-between, but these are the main ones.
Oct 18, 2013 17:29:36   #
Nightski
 
Oh boy, I hope this doesn't get to be way more information than the op is ready for right now. It's really good information, and thank you mdorn and lighthouse. But Country, for now, just go out and try the things I told you about. Do 3 different shutter speeds for each f=stop. -1, 0, +1 Start at f/16, and move to F/22. You will learn something if you pay attention to your settings when you download your pics. And use a tripod.
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